On to part 2. Papillons are always particoloured. This means that they must always have patches of colour on a solid white background. Unlike Cavaliers, Papillons are usually predominantly white--this means that most only have colour on their heads and tails. Most dogs will have a small patch or two of colour on their bodies, but many only have colour on their heads. They're also supposed to have a blaze on their faces (the white stripe), but in Papillons, not having a blaze is also allowed in the ring and there are many champion dogs who do not have blazes.
Let's start off with Tricolours. There are two varieties of Tricolours in Papillons. They look just like the tricolour Cavaliers, with tan "eyebrows" and tan on their cheeks and base of the tail. The first and most common kind is the "Classic Tricolour". Cadence is a classic tri, and here's a picture of him:
The other type of tricolour is pretty rare, and they're called "hound tricolours". They basically have creeping tan, so when they are young puppies they look like classic tricolours but as they grow older, the tan parts slowly extend over their faces. Sometimes, hound tricolours have so much tan that they look more like sables than tricolours. The best way to differentiate between a hound tri and a sable dog is to look at the fur on their bodies. Hound tricolours will have only solid black markings on their bodies. Sables will have sable (red mixed with black) fur on their bodies.
Here's a picture of a hound tri. Her name is Mia and she's owned by my friend Lauren who lives in Oklahoma.
Mia is an example of a hound tri that exhibits her tricolour very well. You can see her black markings on her face. Here's another dog who is a hound tri but looks like a sable if you only look at its face:
There is another sort of Tricolour that isn't really a separate colour per se, but is a variation of the traditional tricolour. In Papillons, there exists the "masking gene" which causes black fur to grow on their faces. This mask is more common in sable coloured dogs, but sometimes when they occur in tricolours, they produce a colour called "minimal tricolour". Here is a picture of one:
Minimal Tricolours are often mistaken as black and white dogs because their tan points are easily missed. Sometimes, minimal tris can be so black that the only way you can tell that they're genetically tricolour is to look at their fur under the sun and check on the base of their tails. Black and white dogs will never have any tan coloured fur on their bodies but Tricolours almost always do.
The most common colour that Papillons come in is red sable. Sable dogs can look vastly different, so there are different terms for different shades of sable. For example, the lightest shade of sable is called "clear red sable". The Papillons that I posted in my "Favourite Papillons" post were mostly clear red sables (my favourite colour!). Clear red sables are Papillons who can look like they're red and white dogs. They are usually very light coloured and have only a few stray black hairs on their heads and bodies.
Here's a picture of Crystal again (she's owned by my friend Amy Macpherson):
There are also dark red sable dogs--these are sable coloured dogs who have lots of black hairs on their coat. This is a picture of Nia, who is owned by my friend Jade Wang and lives in Vancouver, Canada:
If you look carefully, you'll also see that Nia has a black mask on her face--that's the black fur that's surrounding her eyes and muzzle. Many sable coloured Papillons have masks on their faces which covers the sable coloured fur.
Next, we move on to red and white coloured dogs. Red and white dogs are genetically different from red sable coloured dogs--often, sable coloured dogs are born with lots of black fur, so much so that it's hard to tell what shade of sable they'll end up. For example, here is a sable coloured dog (he is owned by Braylor's Papillons) at a few weeks old:
And here he is again as an adult. Notice how much dark coloured fur he's lost and how much lighter he's become? Sable coloured dogs are always born with dark coloured fur that gradually lightens as they age. They don't exhibit their true colours until a year old for the most part.
On the other hand, red and white coloured dogs will NEVER have any black fur whatsoever. Often, they are born with very light coloured coats that gradually darken as they age. Here's a picture of a true red and white Papillon:
A variation of red and white is lemon and white. These are Papillons who are genetically either red sable or red and white but they have a modifier gene called dilution. Dilution dilutes coat colour and makes it lighter, producing lemon and white coloured Papillons. They are very, very rare and hard to come by. Here's a picture of a lemon and white dog who is genetically sable because it has black furs:
And here's a white and lemon dog who doesn't have the sabling gene:
Lastly, we get to black and white coloured Papillons. These are dogs who only have black and white fur on their bodies. Here's a picture of one, his name is "Magic Sunrise Honey Heart" and is owned by Julija Pavlova in Latvia:
That about covers it! These are the colours that are accepted in the show ring. Sometimes you'll come across Papillons who are of non-standard colours such as liver (chocolate) and blue, but they are very rare and you'll probably only be able to see pictures of them online.
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